The cardiac profile test comprises of special lipoproteins, Apolipoprotein A1, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A1/B ratio and C-reactive protein. Together with the cholesterol levels, it allows for better understanding of the cardiac risk profile.
Apolipoprotein A1 and B
Apolipoprotein A1 is the major protein component of HDL (high density lipoprotein) in blood. It helps to move fat and cholesterol from tissues to the liver for excretion. A low level of Apolipoprotein A1 indicates inadequate HDL, whilst a high level is not of concern.
Apolipoprotein B, especially when associated with elevated LDL levels, increase the risk of plague formation and artherosclerosis. A high level of Apolipoprotein B is not desirable, whilst a low level is acceptable.
||Ref range (g/L)
|Apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio
Hence a high Apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio implies inadequate HDL or excessive LDL.
A hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein) test may be used to help identify risk of cardiovascular disease. It’s interpretation should be made in combination with other risk factors such as elevated LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, cigarette smoking, hypertension and diabetes
Elevated levels of hs-CRP in healthy persons may suggest an increased risk of heart attack, stroke and peripheral arterial disease.
||Low risk for CVD
||Average risk for CVD
||Increased risk for CVD
||Suggestive of infection/other sources of inflammation
Homocysteine is a type of amino acid used in the body to make proteins. Normally, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid convert homocysteine into other substances needed in the body. High levels of homocysteine may be associated with accelerated artherosclerosis, heart disease and stroke. Reduction in intake of food rich in cholesterol, simple sugars, oil and fat, as well as in increase in physical exercise will help to correct the above factors and reduce the risk of artherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke.